Global Change Consulting Consortium, Inc.

Some other topics that we plan to detail - a partial list:

   Some of the topics overlap, but there are natural groupings that cause this.

            The estimate of the number of (small) vehicles that can be supplied with lithium batteries is based on the need for about 4.3 kg of lithium per car:

                Big problem already in CA - e.g., with almonds

·        Fully electric vehicles with electric power generated solely from renewable sources

·        The hydrogen economy, if hydrogen is generated directly by solar photolysis of water, or electrolysis with electric power from renewable sources

·        Fuel cells, reducing fossil-fuel use via higher thermodynamic efficiency

§         High rate of production globally and regionally

§         Effects on climate and hydrology via effects on

o       tropospheric absorption of sunlight

o       acceleration of snowmelt

§         Natural economic decisions - low consumer demand in these areas

§         Utility decisions - abandoning redundancy in transmission lines after deregulation, to save money

§         Consequences: long waits for tie-ins - up to 47 years in California

§         Decreased investment of utilities in maintenance after deregulation; equipment failures are expected to become severe without very large investment (several trillion dollars)

§         Increased stress on transmission lines, from increased use of lines for power trading rather than load balancing; resultant loop currents cause failures and damage

§         Loss of nutritive value in meat (omega-3 fatty acids)

§         Suboptimal digestion of animals ŕ required use of antibiotics ŕ generation of antibiotic resistance in microbes

§         Poor energy return in many systems

§         Expansion of ethanol crop area at expense of food crop area, wildlife habitat

§         Enhanced soil erosion

§         Obesity ŕ health problems, especially diabetes ŕ high costs of medical care

o  Origins in federal farm policies (Earl Butz); political life of its own

§         Half the people alive today are supported by N fertilizers produced by industrial N2 fixation (Haber-Bosch process)

§         Is this process sustainable, especially on an equitable basis in different world regions, given the high energy cost (3% of world energy use)?

§         Changes in precipitation - mean levels, droughts, floods

§         Changes in temperature, humidity, wind regimes, etc.

o       Physiological tolerance limits

o       Effects of biological extreme events - dominant determinants, more so than climatic means?

§         Changes in activities of weedy competitors, pathogens, and pests



There are many areas where there is already much development and our contribution would likely be peripheral; here, we can point to exceptionally valuable findings and tools that are not widely appreciated.  This helps build a customer base (but we can't spend a great deal of time on it).  Examples: